Eﬀects of Food Processing on Resveratrol and Total Phenolic Content in Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) Seeds
Islamudin Ahmad1, Desta Andriyani2, Christoper Gunawan2, Nisrina Dhiah Fauziah2, Sutriyo Sutriyo3, Abdul Mun’im2,*
1Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Research and Development of FARMAKA TROPIS, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, East Kalimantan, INDONESIA.
2Laboratory of PharmacognosyPhytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, INDONESIA.
3Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, INDONESIA
Objective: Trans-resveratrol is a phenolic compound in the stilbene group present in Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seeds. In Indonesia, these seeds are consumed by roasting, frying (i.e., emping), and boiling. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of food processing on trans-resveratrol and total phenolic compound levels in melinjo seeds. Methods: Melinjo seed was roasted at 145oC for 10 and 20 min, boiled at 100oC for 5, 15, and 30 min, and fried at 160-170oC for 2 and 4 min. Samples were reﬂuxed with 96% ethanol. The determination of trans-resveratrol levels was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Based on the results, it was found that trans-resveratrol and total phenolic content levels in Melinjo powder decreased from 36% to 10% (trans-resveratrol) and 15% to 4% (total phenolic) after 20 min of roasting, and in fried empings, it decreased 60%, 68%, and 92% (trans-resveratrol) and 41%, 45%, 97% (total phenolic) after 5, 15, and 30 min of boiling, respectively. Conclusion: There were signifcant changes in trans-resveratrol levels and total phenolic content in Melinjo seeds before and after various cooking processes (i.e., roasting, boiling, and frying).
Key words: Food processing, Melinjo seeds, Gnetum gnemon L., Resveratrol levels, Total phenolic content.
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